Turkey has many ways to move through the country and is well served by air, buses and taxis services. There are an extensive and well maintained road network linking the towns, cities, and popular tourist areas. Train system is limited and slow in comparison with buses; also there are shared taxis or minibuses called Dolmus covering short stretches and linking rural villages.
Turkish Airlines serves the major Turkish cities as well including the busy Istanbul-Ankara hubs. There are available fly services from Turkish Airlines, Onur Air, Fly Air, Pegasus Airlines and Atlasjet among others. The main airports in Turkey are Esenboga in Ankara, Atatürk in Istanbul, Adnan Menderes in Izmir and Sabiha Gökçen at 40km from Istanbul on the Asian Side.
To go from/to airport to/from the city centre very often there are available Havas bus, which is much cheaper than taking a taxi. Dolmus are also a good option.
Holidays to Turkey
Buses are the main form of transportation in Turkey, very easy to use, economical and usually comfortable. The major regional transport hubs are all interconnected with regular services and currently Ulusoy, Varan, Kamil Koc and Pumukkale are considered the top bus companies in Turkey. The first one is more expensive than the others and Pamukkale is usually the cheapest. Although, there are many other different bus companies covering different parts of the country.
For long distance journeys usually most people take overnight buses. However dont forget to invest in good-quality luggage for those bumpy rides.
The Dolmus are a kind of shared taxis or minibuses covering relatively short distances and are very cheap. They can be hailed everywhere on the route, they do not have stops.
Turkish rail network system covers limited numbers of cities and tourist spots and is slower travel compared with the bus. Turkish Railways (TCDD) operates passenger trains all over the country, the company count with sleeping cars, couchettes and restaurant cars. Some are air-conditioned. Fares are comparatively low, but are more expensive for express trains. Discounts of 20% are available for students (though a Turkish student card may be required), groups, round-trips and passengers over 60. Children aged seven and under travel free. Tickets can be purchased at TCDD offices at railway stations and TCDD-appointed agents.
Turkey has an extensive and well developed road network with many main and secondary roads linking all over the country among towns, cities and the popular tourist areas. A highway is opened between Istanbul and Ankara, as well as some other highway sections in different regions of Turkey. The E80, E90 and Trans European Motorway (TEM) are the three main roads leading to Turkey from the European borders and also linking to the Iran and Iraq borders.
In big cities and on the main roads the traffic is generally heavy and you can spend lot of time trying to get to your destination but driving in Turkey is not too complicated, they drive on the right and the Highway Code is the same as the European countries.
There are many rent-a-car services in Turkey, despite Turkish authorities are strict the requirements are not complicated, so you will need a driving license with an International Driving Permit.
Passenger Ferries, there are several cruises in the Mediterranean sea and many shipping companies serving the ports of Trabzon, Samsun, Istanbul, Dikili, Izmir, Cesme, Kusadasi, Bodrum, Marmaris, Antalya, Alanya, Mersin and Iskenderun.
There are a wide range of car ferries for visitors wishing to take their cars while site seeing. Venice, Ancona, Izmir, Istanbul, Antalya and Kusadasi are on the main route of these ferry lines.